Bitwise Xor is defined as you look at the two numbers say (0010 and 1011) and a new number is formed that has a 1 in position i if the ith digit of either of the two starting numbers is 1 but not both. So for 0010 and 1011 XOR would give 1001.

There are 16 of these basic bitwise logical functions, another one is AND which gives a 1 in each position if both of the starting numbers have a 1 in that position.

I'll also define one more the bitshift which takes say L(111) and produces 1110 which is just the original number with a 0 added onto the end.

From these 3 basic operations we can define addition as the program:

**add(A,B)**:

t = XOR(A,B)

u = L(AND(A,B))

if u not equal to 0:

add(t, u)

else:

return t

For example adding these:

A=111 B=101

t=010

u=1010

where t is XOR(A,B) and u is AND(A,B) but shifted 1 position to the left. Then add is called on this t and u, to get:

t=1000

u=0100

then since u is still not 0 add is called again:

t = 1100

u=0000

now u is 0 so the program is done and returns t which is 1100. Note that 111+101 = 1100 is 7+5=12.

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